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陕西快乐十分技巧:In a globally warming world, insects act locally to manipulate their own microclimate
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A key challenge, as CO2 accumulates and Earth warms, is to predict the responses of ecological systems—the suite of interacting populations embedded in the abiotic arena of temperature, moisture, and biogeochemistry. Thermal performance theory (1?–3) has come to the fore as a powerful approach toward understanding such biotic change. Thermal performance theory posits that a suite of organismal traits like thermal minima, maxima, and optima—all underlain by physiology—translate gradients of an organism’s thermal environment into gradients of its performance. “Performance” in this case is an ecoevolutionary catchall that ultimately translates into reproduction, growth, and, at bare minimum, survival. Thermal performance theory’s underlying logic—one used by global change scientists—is that temperature constrains the abundance and distribution of populations and communities: The abiotic predicts the biotic. Toward developing that understanding, students of thermal performance theory have been keenly aware of the importance of natural history, the diversity of ways that organisms experience temperature. In PNAS, Pincebourde and Casas (4) report how seven arthropod species that feed on leaves in the same French apple orchard engineer widely different microclimates for themselves in the process. By flipping the arrow between abiotic and biotic, the authors show how species do not just occupy their thermal niches, they create them.
It is relatively straightforward to measure the thermal environment of large organisms like lizards, birds, and tortoises (2). In the shade, one measures air temperature; in the sun, one adds the effect of radiant heat. For the first generation of biotic change models, climatologists provided the necessary data on mean air temperature and number of hours of sun from the world’s weather stations. Thus began the early marriage of thermal performance theory and climatology (5).
At the same time, microclimatologists (often agronomists interested in the temperature and humidity experienced by leaves) …