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重庆快乐十分开奖视频:Domain topology, stability, and translation speed determine mechanical force generation on the ribosome
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Mechanochemistry, the influence of molecular-scale mechanical forces on chemical processes, can occur on actively translating ribosomes through the force-generating actions of motor proteins and the cotranslational folding of domains. Such forces are transmitted to the ribosome’s catalytic core and alter rates of protein synthesis, representing a form of mechanical allosteric communication. These changes in translation–elongation kinetics are biologically important because they can influence protein structure, function, and localization within a cell. Many fundamental questions are unresolved concerning the properties of protein domains that determine mechanical force generation; the effect of translation speed on this force; and exactly how, at the molecular level, force is generated. In this study we answer these questions using molecular simulations and statistical mechanical modeling.
The concomitant folding of a nascent protein domain with its synthesis can generate mechanical forces that act on the ribosome and alter translation speed. Such changes in speed can affect the structure and function of the newly synthesized protein as well as cellular phenotype. The domain properties that govern force generation have yet to be identified and understood, and the influence of translation speed is unknown because all reported measurements have been carried out on arrested ribosomes. Here, using coarse-grained molecular simulations and statistical mechanical modeling of protein synthesis, we demonstrate that force generation is determined by a domain’s stability and topology, as well as translation speed. The statistical mechanical models we create predict how force profiles depend on these properties. These results indicate that force measurements on arrested ribosomes will not always accurately reflect what happens in a cell, especially for slow-folding domains, and suggest the possibility that certain domain properties may be enriched or depleted across the structural proteome of organisms through evolutionary selection pressures to modulate protein synthesis speed and posttranslational protein behavior.
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Author contributions: S.E.L., F.T., and E.P.O. designed research; S.E.L., F.T., and D.A.N. performed research; S.E.L. and E.P.O. analyzed data; and S.E.L., F.T., D.A.N., and E.P.O. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1813003116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.