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快乐十分必赢技巧广东:Neural crest-derived neurons invade the ovary but not the testis during mouse gonad development
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This study investigates the sexually dimorphic development of innervation in mouse gonads. Neural crest-derived neurons invade the dorsal surface of the mouse ovary during embryonic development and give rise to a neural network, whereas in males, innervation is restricted to the surface of the testis. We propose a molecular mechanism regulating sexual dimorphism in this aspect of gonad development. Growing evidence indicates that neural crest cells can instruct patterning of their target organs during development, independently of their role in the adult organ. The structure and developmental timeline of male and female innervation established in this study lay the groundwork for characterization of functional interactions between neural and other cell types during gonad and duct patterning.
Testes and ovaries undergo sex-specific morphogenetic changes and adopt strikingly different morphologies, despite the fact that both arise from a common precursor, the bipotential gonad. Previous studies showed that recruitment of vasculature is critical for testis patterning. However, vasculature is not recruited into the early ovary. Peripheral innervation is involved in patterning development of many organs but has been given little attention in gonad development. In this study, we show that while innervation in the male reproductive complex is restricted to the epididymis and vas deferens and never invades the interior of the testis, neural crest-derived innervation invades the interior of the ovary around E16.5. Individual neural crest cells colonize the ovary, differentiate into neurons and glia, and form a dense neural network within the ovarian medulla. Using a sex-reversing mutant mouse line, we show that innervation is specific to ovary development, is not dependent on the genetic sex of gonadal or neural crest cells, and may be blocked by repressive guidance signals elevated in the male pathway. This study reveals another aspect of sexually dimorphic gonad development, establishes a precise timeline and structure of ovarian innervation, and raises many questions for future research.
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Author contributions: J.M. and B.C. designed research; J.M., C.B., and I.S.B. performed research; D.M.O. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; J.M. and C.B. analyzed data; and J.M. and B.C. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1814930116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.