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快乐十分软件下载:Evolution of nitric oxide regulation of gut function
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In vertebrate digestive tracts, pyloric sphincters play an important role in controlling the passage of food from stomach to intestine. A major regulator of sphincter relaxation is nitric oxide (NO). However, it is unknown when and how this important means of control was acquired, in part because we lack information on how nonvertebrate deuterostome sphincters are regulated. Here, we show that a NO-dependent regulatory system is present in the pyloric sphincters of sea urchin larvae. Our data suggest that NO-dependent regulation of the pyloric sphincter was present in deuterostome stem groups, and the common deuterostome ancestor had endodermally derived cells that regulated gut function.
Although morphologies are diverse, the common pattern in bilaterians is for passage of food in the gut to be controlled by nerves and endodermally derived neuron-like cells. In vertebrates, nitric oxide (NO) derived from enteric nerves controls relaxation of the pyloric sphincter. Here, we show that in the larvae of sea urchins, there are endoderm-derived neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive cells expressing pan-neural marker, Synaptotagmin-B (SynB), in sphincters and that NO regulates the relaxation of the pyloric sphincter. Our results indicate that NO-dependent pylorus regulation is a shared feature within the deuterostomes, and we speculate that it was a characteristic of stem deuterostomes.
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Author contributions: J.Y. and S.Y. designed research, performed research, analyzed data, and wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1816973116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.