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云南快乐十分奖金:Uncovering the hidden cost of bed bugs
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In the United States, emergency department (ED) visits resulting from bed bugs increased by over 700% between 2007 and 2010 (1), at least 80% of hotels in 2015 had to treat for bed bug infestations (2), and some hospitals lost access to beds nearly every other day due to bed bugs (3). These costs may be just the tip of the iceberg.
For thousands of years, at least as far back as ancient Egypt, bed bugs have afflicted human populations (4), and before the Second World War and the advent of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) perhaps a third of all major European cities were infested with bed bugs (5). After the invention and widespread adoption of DDT, bed bug prevalence plummeted, but almost immediately resistance to DDT emerged in bed bugs and their numbers began to surge (5, 6). Recent studies in the United States suggest that the incidence of bed bugs may have returned to levels not seen since pre-World War II Europe (7, 8). Despite bed bugs’ well-documented negative effects on quality of life and mental health (6, 9, 10), the risk of serious infection and inflammation stemming from their bites (8, 9, 11), the substantial economic costs incurred for treatment/removal (2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13), and their potential ability to vector Chagas disease (14, 15), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (16, 17), and numerous other human pathogens (9, 18), the scientific community (and funding agencies) have turned a comparatively blind eye to bed bugs (Fig. 1A). A new study by Xie et al. (19) starts to correct this research deficiency by studying the benefits of mandatory bed bug infestation disclosure by property …
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