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广东省快乐十分直播:Evidence of within-species specialization by soil microbes and the implications for plant community diversity
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It is widely known from agriculture that pathogens can specialize on genotypes within plant species, but such highly specialized pathogens have rarely been studied in natural plant communities. Although empirical evidence in natural plant communities demonstrates that pathogens can specialize at the level of species, our experiment in Panama demonstrates specialization of soil microbes within a wild plant population. Our complementary computer simulations suggest that genotype-level specialization by microbes may help maintain plant species diversity and promote the evolution of increased seed dispersal. Together, our results improve understanding of the role of microbes in natural plant communities by showing that microbes that specialize within species could influence diversity and dynamics in plant communities.
Microbes are thought to maintain diversity in plant communities by specializing on particular species, but it is not known whether microbes that specialize within species (i.e., on genotypes) affect diversity or dynamics in plant communities. Here we show that soil microbes can specialize at the within-population level in a wild plant species, and that such specialization could promote species diversity and seed dispersal in plant communities. In a shadehouse experiment in Panama, we found that seedlings of the native tree species, Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae), had reduced performance in the soil microbial community of their maternal tree compared with in the soil microbial community of a nonmaternal tree from the same population. Performance differences were unrelated to soil nutrients or to colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, suggesting that highly specialized pathogens were the mechanism reducing seedling performance in maternal soils. We then constructed a simulation model to explore the ecological and evolutionary consequences of genotype-specific pathogens in multispecies plant communities. Model results indicated that genotype-specific pathogens promote plant species coexistence—albeit less strongly than species-specific pathogens—and are most effective at maintaining species richness when genetic diversity is relatively low. Simulations also revealed that genotype-specific pathogens select for increased seed dispersal relative to species-specific pathogens, potentially helping to create seed dispersal landscapes that allow pathogens to more effectively promote diversity. Combined, our results reveal that soil microbes can specialize within wild plant populations, affecting seedling performance near conspecific adults and influencing plant community dynamics on ecological and evolutionary time scales.
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Author contributions: J.L.E., S.M.S., C.S.D., S.A.M., and L.S.C. designed research; J.L.E., S.M.S., and C.S.D. performed research; J.L.E., S.M.S., C.S.D., and L.S.C. analyzed data; and J.L.E., S.M.S., C.S.D., S.A.M., and L.S.C. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
See Commentary on page 7166.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1810767116/-/DCSupplemental.
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