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快乐10分中奖规则:Tree diversity regulates forest pest invasion
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Understanding the relationship between tree diversity and pest invasions is of critical importance both to the theoretical understanding of invasion ecology and to the development of effective pest management practices to mitigate the enormous damages caused by nonnative pests. However, evidence of facilitation and dilution remains elusive, especially in natural ecosystems at large scales. Using a unique large dataset encompassing 130,210 forest plots with county-level pest occurrence dataset across the United States, we show that tree-pest diversity relationships are hump-shaped. Both facilitation and dilution appear to coexist, but their relative strength varies with overall native tree diversity. Our findings provide insight into the interaction between facilitation and dilution, which are critical for understanding the invasions of forests by nonnative pests.
Nonnative pests often cause cascading ecological impacts, leading to detrimental socioeconomic consequences; however, how plant diversity may influence insect and disease invasions remains unclear. High species diversity in host communities may promote pest invasions by providing more niches (i.e., facilitation), but it can also diminish invasion success because low host dominance may make it more difficult for pests to establish (i.e., dilution). Most studies to date have focused on small-scale, experimental, or individual pest/disease species, while large-scale empirical studies, especially in natural ecosystems, are extremely rare. Using subcontinental-level data, we examined the role of tree diversity on pest invasion across the conterminous United States and found that the tree-pest diversity relationships are hump-shaped. Pest diversity increases with tree diversity at low tree diversity (because of facilitation or amplification) and is reduced at higher tree diversity (as a result of dilution). Thus, tree diversity likely regulates forest pest invasion through both facilitation and dilution that operate simultaneously, but their relative strengths vary with overall diversity. Our findings suggest the role of native species diversity in regulating nonnative pest invasions.
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Author contributions: Q.G. designed research; Q.G., S.F., K.M.P., and A.M.L. performed research; A.M.L. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; Q.G., S.F., K.M.P., and J.W. analyzed data; and Q.G., S.F., K.M.P., and A.M.L. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
Data deposition: The data used in this study are available at the Purdue University Research Repository (https://doi.org/10.4231/MM0B-JT53).
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1821039116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.