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山西快乐十分钟前三组:Solar-powered synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and water
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The synthesis of hydrocarbons via electroreduction of CO2 is an attractive approach to store energy generated from intermittent renewable sources of electricity (e.g., solar) through formation of the high-energy C–C and C–H bonds of reduced carbon compounds (1, 2). Establishment of such processes also represents a critical step toward the sustainable production of carbon-based commodity chemicals and energy-rich liquid fuels from nonpetroleum resources (3). Despite the promise that such strategies hold, facilitating the rapid, selective, and efficient electrosynthesis of multicarbon products from CO2 is an inherently difficult proposition. Part of the challenge stems from the fact that CO2 reduction half-reactions that generate value-added C1 and multicarbon products take place within a narrow potential window that is less than 0.5 V wide (Fig. 1).
As a result of the reaction landscape illustrated in Fig. 1, it is virtually impossible to target a given CO2 reduction product based purely on thermodynamic considerations. For instance, electrochemical reduction of CO2 to ethylene occurs at 0.08 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Accordingly, any electrochemical process that targets this product must be run at a potential at which production of other species such as ethane (E° = 0.14 V) and methane (E° = 0.17 V) is also thermodynamically feasible. Moreover, kinetics associated …
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