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陕西快乐十分选号神器:Climate change and educational attainment in the global tropics
广东快乐十分投注下载 www.hmclip.net Edited by Deborah Balk, Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, NY, and accepted by Editorial Board Member B. L. Turner March 13, 2019 (received for review October 11, 2018)
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This paper investigates the linkages between extreme temperature and precipitation in early life and educational attainment among children throughout the global tropics. We find that experiencing higher-than-average temperatures is associated with fewer years of schooling in Southeast Asia, and that early-life rainfall is positively associated with attainment in West and Central Africa and Southeast Asia and negatively associated with education in Central America and the Caribbean. While we expected that children from the most educated households would be buffered from these effects, we discover that they tend to experience the greatest educational penalties when exposed to hotter early-life conditions. These results suggest that climate change could undermine gains in socioeconomic development, particularly among the world’s most vulnerable populations.
Climate change may negatively impact education among children via exposure to extreme temperature and precipitation conditions. We link census data from 29 countries across the global tropics to high-resolution gridded climate data to understand how climatic conditions experienced in utero and during early childhood affect educational attainment at ages 12 to 16. We show that exposure to higher-than-average temperatures during the prenatal and early-life period is associated with fewer years of schooling in Southeast Asia. In this region, a child who experiences temperatures 2 SDs above average is predicted to attain 1.5 fewer years of schooling than one who experiences average temperatures. In addition, early-life rainfall is positively correlated with attainment in West and Central Africa as well as Southeast Asia, and negatively correlated with attainment in Central America and the Caribbean. While we expected that children from the most educated households would be buffered from these effects, we discover that they tend to experience the greatest educational penalties when exposed to hotter early-life conditions and, in some regions, to drier conditions. For example, among the most educated households in West and Central Africa, predicted schooling is 1.8 years lower for children who experience early-life rainfall 2 SDs below average versus 2 SDs above average, while the difference is just 0.8 years for children from the least educated households. These results suggest that development and educational gains in the tropics could be undermined by climate change, even for better-off households.
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Author contributions: H.R. and C.G. designed research, performed research, analyzed data, and wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Data deposition: Stata code and additional documentation/files related to this paper are available on Open ICPSR (doi.org/10.3886/E109141V2).
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. D.B. is a guest editor invited by the Editorial Board.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1817480116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.