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陕西快乐十分开奖视频:Characterizing the cultural niches of North American birds
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Conservation of species is driven largely by human decisions, so it is important to understand how and why people value species differently. We combine information from Google searches with millions of bird observations to characterize public interest in North American birds. We describe different relationships between people and birds based on the volume and spatial patterns of these searches. For example, “celebrity” birds attract high numbers of Google searches, even where they do not occur; large birds are generally more popular than small birds; and endangered species attract interest in the regions where they occur. Our results provide a framework for beginning to explore complex relationships between humans and other species and help to inform bird conservation strategies.
Efforts to mitigate the current biodiversity crisis require a better understanding of how and why humans value other species. We use Internet query data and citizen science data to characterize public interest in 621 bird species across the United States. We estimate the relative popularity of different birds by quantifying how frequently people use Google to search for species, relative to the rates at which they are encountered in the environment. In intraspecific analyses, we also quantify the degree to which Google searches are limited to, or extend beyond, the places in which people encounter each species. The resulting metrics of popularity and geographic specificity of interest allow us to define aspects of relationships between people and birds within a cultural niche space. We then estimate the influence of species traits and socially constructed labels on niche positions to assess the importance of observations and ideas in shaping public interest in birds. Our analyses show clear effects of migratory strategy, color, degree of association with bird feeders, and, especially, body size on niche position. They also indicate that cultural labels, including “endangered,” “introduced,” and, especially, “team mascot,” are strongly associated with the magnitude and geographic specificity of public interest in birds. Our results provide a framework for exploring complex relationships between humans and other species and enable more informed decision-making across diverse bird conservation strategies and goals.
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Author contributions: J.G.S. designed research; J.G.S. and A.J. performed research; J.G.S. and A.J. analyzed data; and J.G.S. and A.J. wrote the paper.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1820670116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.