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云南快乐十分开奖结:Hydrogel-based transparent soils for root phenotyping in vivo
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Imaging of plant roots is severely limited by the opacity of soil media. Hydroponic (or gel) conditions provide transparency but nonphysiological root phenotypes. Here, we develop a “transparent soil” with high transparency, good mechanical stability, tunable pore sizes, low cost, and easy scalability. This porous media can support root growth in the presence of air, water, and nutrients, and allows for the imaging of unconstrained root systems in vivo by both photography and microscopy. Our study provides evidence that the roots of soybean developed in this medium are significantly more similar to those developed in real soil than those developed in hydroponic conditions and do not show signs of hypoxia.
Root phenotypes are increasingly explored as predictors of crop performance but are still challenging to characterize. Media that mimic field conditions (e.g., soil, sand) are opaque to most forms of radiation, while transparent media do not provide field-relevant growing conditions and phenotypes. We describe here a “transparent soil” formed by the spherification of hydrogels of biopolymers. It is specifically designed to support root growth in the presence of air, water, and nutrients, and allows the time-resolved phenotyping of roots in vivo by both photography and microscopy. The roots developed by soybean plants in this medium are significantly more similar to those developed in real soil than those developed in hydroponic conditions and do not show signs of hypoxia. Lastly, we show that the granular nature and tunable properties of these hydrogel beads can be leveraged to investigate the response of roots to gradients in water availability and soil stiffness.
?1L.M. and Y.S. contributed equally to this work.
- ?2To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: .
Author contributions: L.C. designed research; L.M., Y.S., O.S., B.Y., T.K.E., and K.R.L. performed research; B.G. and V.V. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; L.M., Y.S., O.S., T.K.E., S.V.M., B.G., V.V., and L.C. analyzed data; and L.M., Y.S., and L.C. wrote the paper.
Conflict of interest statement: L.M. and L.C. are inventors on a patent application (US 16/107,512) submitted by Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc. that covers methods of making hydrogel-based transparent soil.
This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1820334116/-/DCSupplemental.
Published under the PNAS license.